Reading & Teaching Esperanza

My daughter is reading Esperanza Rising by Pam Munoz Ryan in her 6th grade ELA class and since it’s been on my list of books to read for a couple of YEARS I decided to read it with her.  It is a story that draws readers in almost immediately, and one that many can identify with and that many of us can learn from.  I found the audiobook version on YouTube (see below) and plan on playing it for my younger daughter.

You can find numerous teaching resources online (here’s one from Scholastic) and it would be perfect for lessons in character, perseverance, historical fiction, immigration, the Great Depression, or Mexican culture.  I love that my daughter’s ELA teacher has parents bring in various food items that serve as chapter titles so students can try different foods.  (A more elaborate activity could be to have students/parents bring in food items for a fiesta like the one detailed in the book.  Guest speakers from the community can also be invited to talk about their immigration experience or any personal connections they might have to this time in history.)

Other topics mentioned in the book that can be further discussed

  • Class divides: Why does Esperanza say that in Mexico there’s a river between her and Miguel?  Does the same divide exist in the US?
  • Immigration, migrant workers
  • Working conditions for migrant workers: Why do workers strike? What are pros and cons of striking?
  • Segregation
  • Dust storms
  • Discussion of various symbols in the book — the mountains and valleys in the blanket Esperanza is crocheting, the meaning behind her name, etc.
  • Other books about characters that had to persevere through difficult circumstances… For example, read Listening for Lions (Gloria Whelan) or The Higher Power of Lucky (Susan Patron) and discuss similarities and differences between the stories and characters.

Multicultural Display at Hampton

One of the projects I took on during my first couple of weeks at Hampton was to create a multicultural display for the media center. I thought this would be a relevant project given the diverse population at the school.  It also gives me an opportunity to run an analysis of the current multicultural collection and create a consideration file for Jenny.

Here are some pictures of the display and a link to the consideration file I created:

CAM01261 multicultural display1

CAM01251 CAM01252 CAM01253

CAM01254 CAM01257


The Keeping Quilt: Patricia Polacco


The Keeping Quilt

Author/Illustrator: Patricia Polacco

Publisher: New York : Simon & Schuster Books for Young Readers

Publication Year: 1988

Brief Summary: Patricia Polacco tells the story of her Jewish immigrant family and how four generations have been bound together by one homemade quilt. 

Awards, Honors and Prizes:

Sydney Taylor Book Award, 1988 Winner Younger Readers United States
Best of the Bunch, 1988 Association of Jewish Librarians
Not Just for Children Anymore!, 1999 Children’s Book Council
Recommended Literature: Kindergarten through Grade Twelve, 2002 California Department of Education
Teachers’ Choices, 1989 International Reading Association

Ideas for using this book in classroom or library; brief notes on curriculum connections/content learning standards/Common Core/etc.

  • Why do you think Polacco chose to keep only certain parts of the illustrations in color, while other parts remain in gray scale?  How did she use color in this book to highlight the theme of her story?
  • How has the quilt played a role in the characters’ lives? (Comprehension)
  • This story is a real story based on Polacco’s family.  Traci, Polacco’s daughter, was the last to get the quilt at the end of the book.  Can you make a prediction of who the quilt might be passed onto next?  How do you think the quilt will be used in this person’s life?  (Prediction)
  • What are some traditions Anna’s family keeps? (Comprehension)  What are some traditions your family keeps?  (Self-to-text connections)
  • Does your family have something that has been passed down from one generation to the next?  What is it and why is it important/special in your family?  Write a short story about it and illustrate. (Self-to-text connections)
  • Class Keeping Quilts: Have each student draw or write something that is important to him/her on a piece of square, colored paper. Connect all the squares into a “quilt”.  Have each student talk to the class about his/her square and its significance.  This could be done on actual quilting blocks that can be made into a quilt and given to the teacher/librarian as a gift.  (Art teacher)
  • Individual Keeping Quilts: Have each student make their own quilt (at least 9 squares).  What pictures/writings would they include?  Have students share about the significance of their drawings/writings.
  • Math connection: bring in some quilt samples or show the class pictures of various kinds of quilts.  What geometric shapes do students see in quilts?  Have students create their own quilting patterns using pre-cut shapes.

Tree of Cranes: Allen Say

Tree of Cranes

Author/Illustrator: Allen Say

Publisher: Houghton Mifflin

Publication Year: 1991

Brief Summary: A young mother teaches her little boy (Allen Say) about an American holiday called Christmas and the tradition of decorating a Christmas tree.

Awards, Honors and Prizes:

Bay Area Book Reviewers Association Award, 1992 Winner Children’s Literature United States
PEN Center USA Literary Award, 1992 Winner Children’s Lit United States
Bulletin Blue Ribbons, 1991 ; Bulletin of the Center for Children’s Books
Children’s Catalog, Eighteenth Edition, 2001 ; H.W. Wilson
Children’s Catalog, Nineteenth Edition, 2006 ; H.W. Wilson
Kaleidoscope, A Multicultural Booklist for Grades K-8, 1994 ; National Council of Teachers of English
Kirkus Book Review Stars, 1991
Notable Children’s Books, 1992 ; Association for Library Service to Children
Recommended Literature: Kindergarten through Grade Twelve, 2002 ; California Department of Education
Sharing Cultures: Asian American Children’s Authors, 2001 ; ALSC American Library Association

Ideas for using this book in classroom or library; brief notes on curriculum connections/content learning standards/Common Core/etc.

  • What are some of the mother’s feelings about America?  How can you tell?  Discuss the word “nostalgia” and “homesickness”.  The mother looks Japanese…why do you think she might be homesick for America?
  • Talk about Japan and its traditions and how these might be different from some of the traditions we have in the U.S.  Japanese people might not celebrate Christmas — why?  what do they celebrate instead?  Do you know of American families that might have different holiday traditions as well?  (e.g. Jewish families don’t celebrate Christmas either!)
  • Survey the class about different holiday traditions that the students hold at home.  Ask students why certain traditions are significant to their family — religious or not.  If students have unique traditions/celebrations, discuss how these might have come about.
  • Read alongside Grandfather’s Journey and Tea with Milk in sequence (Journey, then Tea with Milk, then Tree of Cranes).  Discuss how Allen Say based these books on his family.  His grandfather’s experiences is based on Allen Say’s life; his mom is the child in the first book, the young woman in the second book, and the mom in the third book, in which she taught Say about American Christmases.

Accessed at: Personal Library

Tea with Milk: Allen Say

Tea with Milk

Author/Illustrator: Allen Say

Publisher: Houghton Mifflin

Publication Year: 1999

Brief Summary: A young woman who grew up in America returns to Japan with her parents and tries to adjust to her new life.

Awards, Honors and Prizes:

Best Children’s Books of the Year, 2000 ; Bank Street College of Education
Booklist Book Review Stars, March 15, 1999 ; American Library Association
Bulletin Blue Ribbons, 1999 ; Bulletin of the Center for Children’s Books
Capitol Choices, 1999 ; The Capitol Choices Committee
Children’s Books of Distinction, 2000 ; Riverbank Review
Children’s Catalog, Eighteenth Edition, 2001 ; H.W. Wilson
Children’s Catalog, Nineteenth Edition, 2006 ; H.W. Wilson
Children’s Literature Choice List, 2000 ; Children’s Literature
Not Just for Children Anymore!, 2001 ; Children’s Book Council
Notable Children’s Books, 2000 ; ALSC American Library Association
Publishers Weekly Book Review Stars, March 1999 ; Cahners
Recommended Literature: Kindergarten through Grade Twelve, 2002 ; California Department of Education
School Library Journal Best Books, 1999 ; Cahners
School Library Journal Book Review Stars, May 1999 ; Cahners
Smithsonian Magazine’s Notable Books for Children, 1999 ; Smithsonian
Special Interest Group of the International Reading Association, 2000 ; Special Interest Group of the International Reading Association

Ideas for using this book in classroom or library; brief notes on curriculum connections/content learning standards/Common Core/etc.

  • Social Studies: Discuss immigration…what is it?  What might it be like if you have to move to a foreign country?  What are some difficulties you might encounter?  What are some good things that might come out of leaving for a new country?
  • We’ve read stories about people who immigrated to America, but in this story, a Japanese-American girl must go with her parents to Japan and start a new life there.  What kind of things does she have to get used to?
  • Why do you think the parents want to go back to Japan?
  • Social Studies: talk about Japan and its traditions and how these might be different from some of the traditions we have in the U.S.
  • Students research their families background/heritage.  Are there students whose families — parents, grandparents, or further back — have immigrated to the US, or have moved to a different country? Students can make a poster about their experience
  • Students can interview their parents/grandparents about their feelings about leaving their homeland. Make a chart of what they miss about their homeland, and what they love about their new country.
  • Read alongside Grandfather’s Journey and Tree of Cranes in sequence (Journey, then Tea with Milk, then Tree of Cranes).  Discuss how the child in the first book is the young woman in the second, and the mom in the third.
  • Have you travelled outside of the country before?  What was it like?  What did you see/learn/experience? Have students make travel brochures about a place they have visited and would like to promote to their friends (does not have to be outside of the country!).

Accessed at: Personal Library

5 Questions: The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian by Sherman Alexie

Bowing to pressure from outraged parents and after inquiries from the Daily News, the principal of Public School/Middle School 114 announced the book was no longer required summer reading. ‘It was like “Fifty Shades of Grey” for kids,’ said Kelly-Ann McMullan-Preiss, who refused to let her son read the book.

Read more:

REALLY?!?  This book is about many things, but the last thing it is is “Fifty Shades”…nor is it about masturbation, or teen swearing.

Anyone who has actually READ this book knows that it’s about growing up, racism, alcoholism, poverty, friendship, family, love, hope/desperation, courage, finding your identity, and many, many more. This was my favorite book this summer. Yes, it contains f-bombs and references to sex but it is not used gratuitously, I promise!  You can like or dislike the book — everyone is entitled to that — but let it not be because a) you haven’t read it or b) a word you didn’t like was mentioned a few times.

Below is my reading response for the book, written for my YA course this summer.

Favorite part/scene of the novel….

I loved Alexie’s use of humor to offset the hopelessness and desperation Junior (and those living on the reservation) feels.  This is often seen in the cartoons Junior draws, which serve as lighthearted commentary on the important events and people in life.  They are full of sarcasm (e.g. p. 51, 107, 124) and keen observations (especially portraits of Junior’s family and friends: those of his parents on p. 12, of his sister on p. 27, and of his grandmother on p. 69).  The narrative contains many funny moments too.  One of the saddest part of the book – when the reservation held a wake for Junior’s grandmother after she was killed by a drunk driver – was filled with laughter:  Billionaire “Ted” had shown up for the wake with a long-winded, affected story about how he came to be in possession of Grandmother Spirit’s dance outfit, only to be told that she was never a dancer, and that, contrary to what his expert had told him, the beadwork and design looked more Sioux than Spokane.  And just like that, the tone of the chapter turns from somber to light:

Two thousands Indians laughed at the same time.  We kept laughing.
It was the most glorious noise I’d ever heard.
And I realized that, sure, Indians were drunk and sad and displaced and crazy and mean, but dang, we knew how to laugh.
When it comes to death, we know that laughter and tears are pretty much the same thing.

To me, this passage (p. 166) is a perfect summation of the tone of this book – a marriage of light and dark, laughter and tears.

How did the book make you feel and what thoughts did it make you have…relate to personal experiences…

I am especially drawn to the theme of duality in this book, the duo identity that Junior grapples with.  I loved the cartoon on p. 166 — one side of the face laughing, one side crying — but also p. 43 — the signage pointing one way to REZ/HOME and one to HOPE/??? – and p. 57 – a split drawing of a white boy on one side and an Indian boy on the other.  The white boy has labels such as “a bright future”, “hope”, and “positive role models”, while the Indian boy has labels such as “a vanishing past”, “a family history of diabetes and cancer”, and “bone-crushing reality”.  This struggle for identity is also shown on p. 182, in the cartoon showing Junior playing basketball.  On the one where he was playing on the rez, he is depicted as the devil or “white-lover”.  On the other side, he is playing at Reardan and is depicted as an angel.  In both pictures, he is thinking, “Who am I?”

Junior and many other characters in the book frequently have to contend with duo-identity issues (his sister Mary, Rowdy, even his parents, who go back and forth between sober and drunk).  Do they stay on the rez knowing that they’ll be stuck in a vicious cycle of poverty, drunkenness, and hopelessness?  Or do they leave, knowing that they’ll be considered traitors?  Even after Junior makes the decision to leave, he struggles with who he really is and where he truly belongs.  Being an immigrant myself, I often wrestle with the same question, but as I’ve grown older, I’ve realized that there’s no good answer – one just ends up feeling pulled in all sorts of directions.  I loved Junior’s epiphany near the end of the book (p. 217):

I realized that sure, I was a Spokane Indian.  I belonged to that tribe.  But I also belonged to the tribe of American immigrants.  And to the tribe of basketball players.  And to the tribe of bookworms.
And the tribe of cartoonists.
And the tribe of chronic masturbators.
And the tribe of teenage boys.
And the tribe of small-town kids.
And the tribe of Pacific Northwesterners.
And the tribe of tortilla chips-and-salsa lovers.
And the tribe of poverty.
And the tribe of funeral-goers.
And the tribe of beloved sons.
And the tribe of boys who really missed their best friends.
It was a huge realization.
And that’s when I knew that I was going to be okay.

Consider whether or not this novel would appeal to today’s teens. If so, why and to which group? Think about where the novel fits into the YA spectrum. Middle school? High school? Boys? Girls? Reluctant Readers? Only fans of certain genre? 

I believe this book would appeal to today’s teens, since it addresses many issues that teens deal with today: alcoholism, poverty, abuse, racism, etc.  According to Alexie’s 2011 Speakeasy article, “Why the Best Kids Books are Written in Blood”, he has met with many young readers who found solace and hope in reading Part-Time Indian.  Boys might be especially drawn by the sports references in the book and the male characters/friendships.  That said, boys and girls alike who have dealt with identity issues as well as those mentioned above will find themselves in these pages.  This book might appeal to reluctant readers and fans of graphic novels/cartoons (the art adds volumes to the text).  Reviewers recommend this book for middle-schoolers and up.


5 Questions: American Born Chinese by Gene Luen Yang

1. If you are not an experienced reader of graphic novels, describe/discuss your reading of American Born Chinese. Was it difficult to get used to reading a story in this format? Did you enjoy the experience?

American Born Chinese was my first graphic novel.  After hearing Gene Yang’s lecture at UTK I was intrigued and ran out and bought a copy.  I grew up reading Japanese manga and so the format/layout is not new.  I did, however, come into the experience as a skeptic…graphic novels might be fun to read, but surely, they wouldn’t be considered “literature”, right?  I was surprised to find myself thoroughly enjoying ABC, but at the same time, having a hard time understanding it during my first read-through.  How could that be, since graphic novels in my mind were supposed to be less literary and easier to read?  Subsequent readings had me paying more attention to the details in the illustrations and the interplay between the text and the drawings.  I loved Yang’s drawing style and the little inside jokes he hides within the panels.  I have since then tried a few other graphic novels and my opinion on graphic novels have definitely shifted!  I can see, as Yang discussed on “Comics in Education?!”, that this strong emphasis on visuals can be great for not only visual learners, but could benefit learners in general (Sones’ 1944 study showed that children given information presented in comic form had scored higher than children who were given the same information in text form), and graphic novels could motivate reluctant and ESL readers as well.

2. Teenagers often struggle with identity in its many shapes and forms—cultural, sexual, personal, etc. Please comment of the theme of identity and its importance to American Born Chinese.

I believe one of the biggest struggles for immigrants is with identity.  Yang explores this in American Born Chinese with great care, using three seemingly separate storylines (one with the Monkey King, one with Jin, and one with Danny and his cousin Chin-kee).  The Monkey King laments the fact that, even though he has mastered the four major heavenly disciplines, he is still seen as a monkey.  Even though Jin was born in the United States, he is still identified as “Chinese” and teased because of his heritage.  And it didn’t matter what that heritage is, he is automatically grouped together with Suzy (Japanese) and Wei Chen (Taiwanese).  Danny, a typical American boy, is plagued by his Chinese cousin Chin-Kee.  We eventually find out that Jin and Danny were the same person, which to me, is a brilliant treatment of the theme and shows that Yang truly understand the dilemma immigrants go through.  Immigrants — 1st-, 2nd-, even 3rd-generation — are first and foremost identified/judged by the color of their skin (this is true in Jin’s case).  People will ask my kids where they are from, and when they would reply “Michigan”, people would say, “But where are you from, originally?”  This would confuse them to no ends, understandably!   As Danny’s storyline show, we can try to blend in as much as we can, playing varsity sports and dying our hair blond, but the ugly stereotypes (as personified by Chin-kee) will always follow us…there’s no escaping them.

The relationship between Jin and Wei-Chen is interesting to me, since I remember a time where I was more of a FOB than an ABC, wanting and longing to become an ABC (but hating them at the same time for “betraying” or looking down at their heritage).  There’s a period where I was somewhere in the middle — having friends in both camps — and then when I shifted to more the ABC side, I remember wanting to distance myself from the FOBs — because they were often the target of teasing and racial slurs — but at the same time, wanting what they have (a stronger identity within their heritage).  Even today, as an Taiwanese-Canadian/American living down south, I (and my American-born family) struggle with this search for identity on a daily basis.

3. Racism also plays a major role in the overall theme of American Born Chinese. For me, Yang handles this troubling theme with genius. Please write a thoughtful paragraph about the theme of coping with racism in this novel.

Yang does a brilliant job shedding light on the issue of racism and how people cope with it.  Chin-kee’s character personifies every stereotype that is associated with a Chinese person — the Chinese take-out boxes, the buck teeth, the accent (the interchange of l’s and r’s), being loud, the grammar (no third-person inflections), being smart, slanted eyes, etc. — and this is something one can’t shed, no matter how Americanized one can appear to be (e.g. Danny, though he appears “white”, always has Chin-kee around to possibly mess up his life).  The only way to cope, I believe, is to figure out and make peace with your true identity, to embrace it, as Jin/Danny and the Monkey King realize in the book. Once you know who you are (and I believe we are all made up of a bunch of different parts) and what you are not, then the racial slurs/stereotypes will have lost their power to hurt.  Instead, they become something we can laugh about and defeat, as Danny did on p. 212.

4. Yang delicately balances the difficult themes of coming of age, the search for identity, and coping with racism with humor. Please locate and list five panels (with the page number) which you personally find humorous. Of these five panels, which is your favorite? Why?

  • p. 30/36, where Jin and Wei-Chen are being introduced.  This is probably my favorite since, as a Taiwanese-American family, first meetings and introductions can often be awkward and confusing.  I am an immigrant like Wei-Chen, and people, whether for lack of knowledge or just convenience, usually assume I’m from China.  My husband and daughters, all born in Michigan, frequently experience what Jin experiences — because they look Asian, they are also automatically assumed to be from China.  If they say they are from Michigan people often rephrase their question, “But where are you originally from?”  Either we repeat themselves and receive blank stares, or we resort to lengthy explanations which can end in humorous confusion as well: “We are actually not Chinese…our families are from Taiwan” is always followed by an enthusiastic “Ohhh, we just love Thai food!”

  • p. 48, where we are first introduced to Chin-kee.  I loved Yang’s use of detail — his luggage are Chinese take-out boxes.  This is such an Americanized stereotype; if you travel to China, HK, or Taiwan, you probably would have a hard time finding those kind of take-out boxes.  The drawing of Chin-kee and the representation of a stereotypical Chinese accent is on the spot too.  I don’t know if this is Yang’s intent, but to me it pokes fun at the people who would put on these accents.

  • p. 111-113, where Chin-kee answers every question correctly.  Here’s Yang addresses another stereotype — that all Asians are super smart — with humor.  But there is a rather dark side to that truth.  Growing up, so much of our self-worth is based on how smart we are and how many A’s we can get, and that’s all adults ever talk about or seem to care about.  It’s interesting what that does to children/teens.  Those who do excel in school work live under constant pressure; those who do not excel constantly feel like failures.

  • p. 148-149, where the Monkey King watches Wong Lai-Tsao being speared and skewered and barbequed by demons and finally accepts his true identity and helps.  It’s funny that he waits this long, and that during all of this Wong Lai-Tsao still has the energy to philosophize/lecture the Monkey King.

  • p. 226, where Jin tries to order off the Chinese menu and points to “Cash Only”, thinking it’s a dish.  On the one hand, Jin was born and raised in America, so he shouldn’t be expected to know the language, and yet because he looks Chinese, the waitress automatically identifies him as such and assumes he would.  I can see this happening with my daughters, who can’t speak or read Chinese.  As the only person who can speak Mandarin fluently in my family, I am always urged to teach my American-born daughters the language.  I struggle with it.  On the one hand, they shouldn’t be expected to, but on the other, I look at my brother’s kids who do and I think maybe I’ve failed somehow by not teaching them.

5. Identifying the audience and determining age appropriateness are two difficult tasks when building a graphic novel collection for teens. Who do you think the audience (the teens most likely to read the book) for American Born Chinese is? What age group do you think the book is most appropriate for?

I think anyone who’s ever experienced an identity crisis or been a target of racism or other forms of teasing based on their appearance or background, anyone who’s ever gone through the immigration experience, whether through their parents or themselves, would appreciate this book.  Chinese-Americans would enjoy the retelling of Monkey King, a classic that every child has grown up with, and other inside jokes as well (Wei-Chen’s “Robo-Happy” shirt is a great detail…Chinese/Taiwanese people love wearing shirts with English on them, even if they don’t make any sense).  Yang’s use of three interconnected characters, and especially his use of Chin-kee, really brings to light the ugly stereotypes that so many people carelessly throw around and their ill-effects.  That said, while I think Chin-kee might be a humorous way to talk about such hard topics as racism, I am concerned that younger readers might misunderstand Yang’s purpose altogether, and think it’s okay to use those stereotypes, accents, etc. (especially since a Chinese author is doing it himself, in a published book!).  (The three interconnected stories might pose some confusion to younger students as well.)  Even though the book has a low reading level (AR 3.3; Scholastic 5, according to CLCD), I would  recommend this book to middle-schoolers and up.  (Amazon recommends this book for 12 and up; CLCD has age recommendations ranging from 12-, 13-, 15- and up, depending on the reviewer).